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口红之上,危险四伏?

原文作者:uedbet体育

 a soft pink, a glowing red, even a 2)cyanotic purple—millions of women and girls apply lipstick every day. and not just once: some style-conscious users touch up their color more than 20 times a day, according to a recent study. but are they also exposing themselves to toxic metals?[论文网] 
   research shows that most lipsticks contain at least a trace of 3)lead. but a new study finds a wide range of brands contain as many as eight other metals, from cadmium to aluminum. now experts are raising questions about what happens if these metals are swallowed or otherwise absorbed on a daily basis. “it matters because this is a chronic long-term issue, not a short-term exposure,” said katharine hammond, a professor of environmental health sciences from the university of california at berkeley and the lead author of the new analysis. “we’re not saying that anyone needs to panic. we’re saying let’s not be complacent, that these are metals known to affect health.”
   the issue first came to public attention in 2007 with a report on lead contamination in lipstick, “a poison kiss,” by the campaign for safe cosmetics. the food and drug administration published an extensive follow-up in 2011, finding traces of lead in 400 lipsticks. both the f.d.a. and the cosmetics industry insist that the average lead level found, just over 1 parts per million, or p.p.m., poses no real or unusual health risk. “metals are ubiquitous,”said linda loretz, chief toxicologist for the 4)personal care products council, an industry association. “and this is a very small amount, too small to be a safety issue.”
   but lead tends to accumulate in the body, noted dr. sean palfrey, medical director of the lead poisoning prevention program at boston university medical center. the f.d.a. itself sets a 0.1 p.p.m. safety standard for lead in candy intended for young children. “not to mention that the 5)c.d.c. acknowledged last year that no level of lead is really safe,” dr. palfrey said.
  and lead may not be the only concern. dr. hammond’s new study, published in may in the journal environmental health perspectives, found traces of cadmium, cobalt, aluminum, titanium, 6)manganese, 7)chromium, copper and nickel in 24 lip glosses and 8 lipstick brands. the researchers picked the products because they were favored by teenagers at a community health center in oakland, calif. the girls reported reapplying lipsticks or glosses as often as 24 times a day. dr. hammond and her colleagues found that aluminum, chromium and manganese registered the highest concentrations over all. the average concentration of aluminum in the lip products, for instance, topped 5,000 p.p.m.; concentrations of lead averaged 0.359 p.p.m.

 aluminum is added to lipsticks as a 8)stabilizer, said ms. loretz: “it keeps colors from bleeding.”titanium oxide is used as a whitening agent, soft

ening reds into pinks. both are approved by the f.d.a. but all of the other metals noted by dr. hammond are probably unwanted contaminants, ms. loretz said. for example, manufacturers often use glittery, microscopic flakes of 9)mica, a naturally occurring mineral formation, to add shine to lip gloss. mica routinely contains such metals as lead, manganese, chromium and aluminum. and there is some indication that more intense lipstick colors may carry a bigger metallic load because of contamination in pigments.
   in the f.d.a.’s 2011 analysis, the highest lead reading was found in a deep floral pink lipstick and the lowest in a neutral lip balm.
   a european study found that brown lipstick tended to be highest in lead, while researchers in saudi arabia reported that dark colors averaged 8.9 p.p.m. of lead, compared with 0.37 p.p.m. in light-colored lipsticks.
   still, there remains a wide range of metal concentrations across colors and brands. to dr. palfrey, this suggests that cosmetics companies are able to control metal content when they choose. “it shouldn’t be a huge step for manufacturers to take out trace amounts of metals in a situation where they don’t know and we don’t know what’s safe for people who use them,” he said.
   some metals are undoubtedly absorbed through 10)mucosal 11)tissues in the mouth, dr. palfrey added. and people do swallow lipstick, one reason that it’s so often reapplied. given the continued debate about how much is absorbed, everyone—including the cosmetics industry—is pushing the f.d.a. to study the issue further.
   in the meantime, dr. hammond recommends that consumers take a common-sense approach to cosmetics. for starters, don’t let young children play with lipstick. “treat it like something dangerous, because if they eat it we are taking about a comparatively large level of metals going into a small body,” she said. and be cautious about how often you reapply that shimmering color, dr. hammond added. given the uncertainties, two or three times a day is all that beauty can reasonably demand.
   每天都有数百万女士和少女涂抹口红——柔粉、艳红、甚至绀紫色——并且不止一次:根据最近的一项研究显示,有些注重打扮的女性一天要涂抹二十多次口红。www.redprintm.com但与此同时,她们是在让自己落入有毒金属的魔爪吗?
   调查显示,大多数口红至少都含有微量的铅。但一项新的研究发现,许多品牌的口红还含有多达八种其他金属,从镉到铝皆在其中。现在专家质疑这些金属物质每日被吞食或以其他方式被吸收后会出现怎样的后果。“这一点很重要,因为这不是短期的接触,而是一个长期的慢性问题,”加州大学伯克利校区的环境健康科学教授凯瑟琳·哈蒙德称,她也是此项新研究报告的主笔,“我们并不是说任何人都要对此感到恐慌,只是我们不能盲目乐观,毕竟这些都是已知的会影响健康的金属物质。”

2007年,由安全化妆品运动组织发表的一份名为《恶魔之吻》的口红铅污染报告首次使这一问题引起了公众的注意。2011年,美国食品和药物管理局发表了一份在大范围展开的后续报告,称在400支口红中都发现了微量铅。食品和药物管理局和化妆品行业都坚称,已发现的铅含量平均值只略高于百万分之一,并不会给健康带来真正的、非比寻常的风险。“金属无处不在,”个人护理用品协会——一个行业协会,其首席毒理学家琳达·罗莉兹说,“这里面的金属含量非常少,少到不足以构成安全问题。”
   “但铅会在体内积累,”波士顿大学医疗中心铅中毒预防计划的医疗主任肖恩·帕尔弗雷博士指出。食品和药物管理局把给幼儿食用的糖果含铅量安全标准设为百万分之零点一。“更不用说去年疾病控制中心承认,并没有哪个水平的铅含量是真正安全的,”帕尔弗雷博士说。
   铅可能不是唯一的问题。据哈蒙德博士五月份发表在《环境与健康展望》杂志上的新研究显示,24款唇彩和8个品牌的口红里均含有少量的镉、钴、铝、钛、锰、铬、铜和镍等金属成分。研究人员之所以选择这些产品,是因为它们深受加州奥克兰社区健康中心的青少年的喜爱。该报告称,女孩们一天要反复涂抹口红或唇彩24次之多。哈蒙德博士及其同事发现铝、铬和锰在所有已标记的金属中浓

度最高。例如,铝在唇部化妆品中的平均浓度高达千分之五;铅的平均浓度达到百万分之零点三五九。
   铝作为稳定剂被添加到口红中,罗莉兹女士说:“铝能定色。”氧化钛作为增白剂,能使红色淡化为粉色。罗莉兹女士表示,这两种金属都是食物和药物管理局批准使用的,但哈蒙德博士列出的其他所有金属都可能是有害的污染物。例如,制造商们通常会使用一种闪光的、细碎的天然形成矿物——云母,以使唇彩更加闪亮。云母一般含有铅、锰、铬和铝等金属成分。有迹象表明,由于色素污染,口红颜色越浓郁,金属含量越高。
   欧洲的一项研究发现,棕色口红的铅含量最高,同时沙特阿拉伯研究人员的报告也显示深色口红的平均铅含量为百万分之八点九,而浅色口红为百万分之零点三七。
  不过,各颜色、品牌的口红还含有各种各样的金属成分。对帕尔弗雷博士来说,这意味着化妆品企业只要愿意的话,其实是可以控制金属含量的。他说:“对制造商来说,在他们和我们都不知道对使用者来说什么是安全的情况下,不使用这些微量金属不该是一件难事。”
   帕尔弗雷博士补充道,一些金属无疑会通过口腔黏膜组织被人体所吸收。人们会吞食掉口红,所以常常需要反复涂抹。到底有多少金属会被吸收至今还在争论不休,众人——包括化妆品行业——都在催促食品药物管理局深入研究这一问题。
  于此同时,哈蒙德博士建议消费者要掌握基本的化妆品常识。首先,不要让幼儿玩口红。“把口红视为危险品,因为如果他们吃下口红,那我们谈的就是大量的金属进入到小身体里,”她说。并且要注意重复涂抹亮色唇彩的次数,哈蒙德博士补充道。鉴于目前口红安全性尚不确定,一天涂抹两三次就能达到美的合理需求了。
   小资料的故事“口红”
  世界上的第一支口红出现在大约五千年前苏美尔的城市乌尔(ur)。其后,古埃及人开始使用黑色、橘色和紫红色的口红,并且男女都会使用。最早的口红是用湿木棒蘸取从植物萃取的色料涂抹于双唇上,之后发展为将植物色料加入油膏中调和成唇颊可用的胭脂罐。而对于中国古代的口红,人们印象最深刻的应该就是“口红纸”,把植物的色料染入油纸中,上妆时双唇在纸上轻轻一抿,就有了嫣红唇色。今天我们所熟知的管状口红,是在1915年才由美国一家制造商推出的,让口红从此有了更便利的型态。
   “口红效应”是一种有趣的经济uedbet现象,也叫“低价产品偏爱趋势”,在20世纪30年代美国经济uedbet大萧条时期首次被提出。在美国,每当在经济uedbet不景气时,口红的销量反而会直线上升。这是为什么呢?原来,在美国,人们认为口红是一种比较廉价的消费品,在经济uedbet不景气的情况下,人们仍然会有强烈的消费欲望,所以会转而购买比较廉价的商品。口红作为一种“廉价的非必要之物”,可以对消费者起到一种“安慰”的作用。
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  •  更新时间:2013-11-30 21:43:33  作者:uedbet体育 [标签: 之上 危险 ]
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