论文网首页|会计论文|管理论文|计算机论文|医药学|经济uedbet学论文|法学论文|社会学论文|文学论文|教育uedbet论文|理学论文|工学论文|艺术论文|哲学论文|文化论文|外语论文|论文格式
uedbet体育

用户注册

设为首页

您现在的位置: uedbet体育 >> 外语论文 >> 英语教学 >> 正文 会员中心
 外语翻译论文   语言文化论文   英美文学论文   其他相关论文   学术英语   商务英语   英语教学
视觉盛宴

原文作者:张薇

  电影给我们呈现了太多的奇迹:人能刀枪不入还会飞,灭绝很多年的恐龙能复活……这些画面逼真得不可思议,让人叹为观止。当然,这得归功于那些神奇的电影特效技术。让我们一起来回顾那些具有里程碑意义的电影,揭开其中特效镜头的神秘面纱吧。
   1. star wars (1977)
  motion-control photography, in which a computer is used to control a long, complex series of camera movements, made possible the spaceship battles in star wars. it would have taken too long to film the scenes manually2), says anne thompson, deputy film editor at the hollywood reporter.
   2. tron (1982)
  it wasn't the first film to use computer-generated graphics and many effects were hand-drawn, but the fantasy flick3) tron was the first to use computer imagery to create a 3d world, making it one of the pioneering computer-generated imagery (cgi) films. "effects people said, 'let's see what the computer can do,'" says harry knowles, movie critic at ain't it cool news.
   3. terminator 2: judgment day (1991) [论文网]
  "morphing" was first used in willow (1988), but in t2 the effect was "jaw-dropping", knowles says. the liquid-metal robot's humanoid4) texture, which was layered onto a cg model, looked frighteningly real.
   4. cliffhanger (1993)
  faux5) alpinist6) stallone was held up7) by wires that were later digitally removed. the ability to erase wires changed how stunts8) are done: now stars and stuntmen can be put in real-world environments as well as in front of green screens.
   5. jurassic park (1993)
  although they enjoyed only about 6 minutes of screen time, jurassic park's digital dinosaurs were a revelation9): they introduced cgi live animals with realistic movements, and believably textured muscles and skin. the photorealistic digital elements were intercut10) with animatronic11) dinosaurs.
   6. forrest gump (1994)
  while most filmmakers in the early '90s used digital effects to create fantasy, the creators of forrest gump altered history. using kodak's cineon system, they digitized archival12) footage13), and composited tom hanks's character into historical clips.
   7. the perfect storm (2000)
  although much previous work had been done to make cgi water look real, the perfect storm's monster wave scene set a new benchmark14). "water is an organic thing that's hard to create in software," says andy maltz of the motion picture academy of arts and sciences. "to make it look believable was a big thing."
   8. the lord of the rings (2001)
  for the huge battle scenes in the lord of the rings trilogy, the filmmakers created massive, a computer program that generates crowds of artificially intelligent individuals "who make their own decisions based on behavior patterns", knowles says. this makes for more realistic battles.

 9. the polar express (2004)
  director robert zemeckis used a large motion-capture stage and up to 200 cameras to gather data from the performance of tom hanks and other ac

tors. this data was used to help animators create digital versions of the actors while maintaining their performances.
   10. the day after tomorrow (2004)
  the creators of the film about worldwide climatic disaster took more than 50,000 photos of new york city and scanned them into a computer, providing "a 3d, photorealistic model of the city", anne thompson says. after that, destroying the metropolis15) with a giant digital wave was a piece of cake.
   1. 《星球大战》(1977年)
  运动控制摄像技术是指利用电脑控制摄像机移动,进行长串复杂的连续摄像的技术。www.redprintm.com这项技术使拍摄电影《星球大战》中飞船交战的镜头成为可能。《好莱坞报道者》日报电影版的副总编安妮·汤普森说,如果手动拍摄这些镜头,那花费的时间就太长了。
   2. 《电子世界争霸战》(1982年)
  尽管《电子世界争霸战》不是首部采用电脑绘图技术的电影,并且该片的许多特效是手绘完成的,但是这部科幻电影却是首部采用电脑图像来绘制三维世界的影片。这使它成为采用电脑绘图技术(cgi)的先驱影片之一。ain't it cool news网站的电影评论员哈利·诺尔斯说:“特效人员说,‘让我们看看电脑能做些什么吧’。”
   3. 《终结者2:审判日》(1991年)
  1988年,影片《风云际会》首次应用了图像变形技术,但是在《终结者2》中该技术的效果据诺尔斯说“让人震惊”。液态金属机器人那像人类一样的肌理是一层层铺在电脑绘制的模型上的,看起来惊人得逼真。
   4. 《绝岭雄风》(1993年)
  史泰龙(编注:《绝岭雄风》的主角)并不是真的登山运动员,他是被钢索吊起来的,这些钢索在后期被人利用数字技术去掉了。可以去掉(镜头中)钢索的技术改变了惊险动作的拍摄方式:现在,影星和特技演员既可以在真实环境下拍摄,也可以在绿屏前拍摄。(编注:演员在绿屏前表演完后,后期通过电脑软件处理,将绿色部分换成特定背景。)
   5. 《侏罗纪公园》(1993年)
  尽管《侏罗纪公园》中的数码恐龙在电影中仅出现了六分钟,但它们在当时可谓一个创举。这些数码恐龙展现了电脑绘图技术制作的活灵活现的动物,它们有着真实的动作、逼真的肌肉和皮肤组织。画面写实的数码元素和电子动画恐龙的镜头在影片中交替切换。
   6. 《阿甘正传》(1994年)
  20世纪90年代初期,当大多数电影制作人采用数字技术来创造奇幻场景时,《阿甘正传》的制作团队却改变了历史。他们通过柯达的cineon数码影像系统把档案影像资料数字化,并将汤姆·汉克斯饰演的角色(编注:即阿甘)插入到了这些历史片段中。
   7. 《完美风暴》(2000年)
  尽管前人为了让电脑绘制的水看上去逼真业已做了很多工作,但《完美风暴》中骇人的巨浪的画面却创造了新的水准。“水是一种不可分割的东西,很难用电脑软件绘制,”在美国电影艺术与科学学院工作的安迪·马尔茨说,“能让水看起来逼真可信确实了不起。”
   8. 《魔戒》(2001年)
  为拍摄电影《魔戒》三部曲中气势恢宏的战争场面,该片制作团队发明了群组动画软件massive。该电脑软件可以生成人工智能人群,据诺尔斯说,智能人群中的个体“可以根据各自的行为模式做出决定”。这个软件有助于制作更为逼真的战争场面。
   9. 《极地特快》(2004年)
  该片的导演罗伯特·泽米基斯采用了一个大型的动作捕捉舞台和多达两百台摄像机来采集汤姆·汉克斯和其他演员的表演资料。这些资料用来帮助动画师在保持演员表演的同时生成这些演员的数字化版本。
   10. 《后天》(2004年)
  为了拍摄这部关于全球范围内气候灾难的影片,该片的制作人员拍摄了五万余张纽约市的照片,并将这些照片扫描到电脑中,生成了“一个逼真的纽约市的三维模型”,安妮·汤普森说道。完成这项内容后,制作用数码巨浪摧毁纽约市的镜头就是小菜一碟了。
  • 上一篇外语论文:
  • 下一篇外语论文:
  •  更新时间:2013-04-07 16:34:33  作者:uedbet体育 [标签: 视觉盛宴 三亚 视觉盛宴 三亚 视觉盛宴 ]
    姓 名: *
    E-mail:
    评 分: 1分 2分 3分 4分 5分
    评论内容:
    发表评论请遵守中国各项有关法律法规,评论内容只代表网友个人观点,与uedbet赫塔菲官网立场无关。
    阅读障碍与视觉加工关系研究
    | 设为首页 | 加入收藏 | 联系我们 | 网站地图 | 手机版 | 论文发表

    Copyright 2006-2013 © uedbet体育官网 All rights reserved 

     [uedbet赫塔菲官网]  版权所有