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哈丽雅特·塔布曼

原文作者:萧萧

  哈丽雅特·塔布曼,美国著名的废奴主义者,美国南北战争时期黑奴逃跑组织“地下铁道”的领导人之一,为了黑人奴隶的解放奋斗终生,被评为美国内战前最伟大的三位平民之一。她不识字,但懂得思考;她铁骨铮铮,亦不乏幽默;她勇敢无畏,信念坚定;她是世界上最勇敢、最善良的人,也是美国人心中的巾帼英雄。在她逝世后的一百年里,美国数十所学院以她的名字命名;美国海军战舰第一次使用一位黑人平民妇女的名字命名;在美国邮政局发行的纪念美国黑人的系列邮票中,纪念她的邮票总数排在首位;在美国评选的最伟大的一百名非裔美国人中,她位列其中。今年是塔布曼逝世一百周年,让我们共同走进这位奇女子的传奇人生。
   there was one of two things i had a right to, liberty, or death; if i could not have one, i would have the other; for no man should take me alive.
   —harriet tubman [论文网]
  harriet was born as a slave around 1820. like all slave children, she could not run and play; she worked all the time. harriet was a hard worker, but when she did not obey her owner she was whipped cruelly. when she saw her owner sell two of her sisters, harriet was terrified that she would also be sold and have to leave her family.
   哈丽雅特·塔布曼大约出生于1820年,生来便是奴隶。www.redprintm.com与其他童奴一样,哈丽雅特不能乱跑和玩耍,只能不停地干活。虽然她干活很卖力,但只要一不听从主人,就会遭到残酷的鞭打。当她亲眼看着自己的两个姐妹被主人卖掉时,她吓坏了,害怕自己也会被卖掉而不得不离开家人。
   dreams of escape
  when she was a young girl, harriet tried to help an escaping slave. the slave's master threw a metal weight at her, and it struck her in the head. harriet almost died from the wound on her forehead. for the rest of her life, she had headaches and sleeping spells2) because of her injury.
   harriet's life was harsh3), but she had dreams. she dreamed of escaping to the north and living as a free woman. when harriet started planning her own escape, she wanted her husband, a free slave, to join her. he refused, mocking her for wanting to leave, and threatened to report her to her master. but harriet was determined to become a free woman.
   one day, harriet's owner died. harriet knew the slaves would be sold; it was time to go. harriet and two of her brothers ran away, but soon after they left, the brothers gave up, forcing harriet to return with them.
   two nights later, harriet escaped alone. to escape, harriet walked 100 miles, alone, through unknown land. she traveled at night and hid during the day. finally, she arrived at the border of pennsylvania, a state where slavery was illegal. harriet was free!
   leading others to freedom
  when harriet reached freedom, she was overjoyed. "there was such a glory over everything," she said when she remembered that day. "the sun come like gold through the trees."
   harriet went to work. she cooked, washed dishes, and cleaned people's houses. now that she was free, people actually paid her to work for them. but harriet was not content to sit back and enjoy her freedom—she saved the money she earned so that she could help free others.

  harriet made nineteen perilous4) trips back to the south, ignoring her own danger in order to become a conductor5) of the underground railroad6). she guided escaping slaves from one safe resting place to another.
   how she did it
  many c

alled harriet a "master of disguise". sometimes she dressed as an old woman, and sometimes she disguised herself as a man. it is said that one day she met one of her former owners, and he didn't recognize her!
   harriet was clever in other ways. she hired men to rip down wanted posters that described runaway slaves. runaway notices, which were printed in the newspaper, weren't put in newspapers on weekends—they had to wait until monday morning. harriet began escapes on saturday nights in order to have a head start7).
   if harriet saw people she thought were slave hunters, she'd turn and go south, to make it look as though she was not trying to escape. if the escaping slaves wanted to turn back, she forced them to keep moving north to freedom. she boasted that she never lost a passenger.
   slave owners were furious, and they offered a reward for harriet's capture, dead or alive. the reward was $40,000—an enormous amount of money for those days. one day, harriet overheard a man reading her own wanted poster, which described harriet as not being able to read. she immediately pulled out a book and pretended to read it, and the man left without giving her a second look.
   harriet helped many of her own relatives out of the south. thanks to harriet, six of her ten brothers and sisters escaped. on one difficult journey, she brought her elderly parents north to canada.
   harriet led about three hundred slaves north to freedom. nothing was more important to her than helping others become free. one famous abolitionist, john brown, called harriet tubman "one of the bravest persons on this continent". people called harriet the "moses of her people", because like moses of the bible, she led her people to freedom.
   the end of slavery
  on april 12, 1861, the civil war began. during the war, harriet worked as a nurse for the north's union army. she was also a spy, scouting8) out the southern army's weapon warehouses9), and she continued to travel into the south to lead slaves north.
   after the civil war, harriet remarried and lived in auburn, new york. she sold vegetables door-to-door. harriet was very poor, yet she turned her own house into a home for needy freed people. she worked for aid and education for freed slaves. harriet also fought for the right of women to vote.

  harriet tubman died march 10, 1913. she devoted her long life to freedom. she will always be remembered as a true hero.
   逃亡之梦
  在哈丽雅特还是小女孩的时候,她曾经试图帮助一个出逃的奴隶。那个奴隶的主人朝她扔了一个金属秤砣,正好砸到她的头上。她的额头被砸伤了,她差点儿因此丧命。她在此后的一生中都因这次受伤而被头痛和睡眠不好所困扰。
   虽然生活很艰苦,但哈丽雅特心怀梦想。她梦想着逃到没有奴隶制的北方,像一个自由女性那样活着。在哈丽雅特开始计划自己的逃亡之旅时,她想让丈夫(一个获得自由的奴隶)和她一同逃跑。她的丈夫非但不肯,还嘲笑她竟然想要逃跑,并扬言要向她的主人告发她。然而,哈丽雅特铁了心要成为一个自由的女性。
   一天,哈丽雅特的主人死了,她知道奴隶们都会被卖掉,是时候该逃跑了。她和自己的两个兄弟一同逃跑,但出逃没多久,她的两个兄弟就放弃了逃亡,还强迫她跟着他们回去。
   但在两天后,哈丽雅特趁着夜色独自一人踏上了出逃之路。为了逃跑,她徒步走了100英里,独自一人穿行在陌生的土地上。她白天东躲西藏,晚上加紧赶路,最后终于抵达宾夕法尼亚州的边界。在这里奴隶制是非法的,哈丽雅特自由了!
   自由的引领者


  获得自由的哈丽雅特感到狂喜不已。她在回忆起那天的情形时说:“一切都带着光环,穿过树林照射而来的阳光就像金子一般闪闪发光。”
  哈丽雅特开始去工作,她给别人做饭、洗碗、打扫屋子。因为她已是自由人,人们真的会付钱给她,让她来给自己干活。但哈丽雅特却不满足于这种悠闲自在、享受自由的生活,她把自己挣来的钱都攒了下来,好帮助其他的奴隶获得自由。
   为了成为一名“地下铁道”组织的“乘务员”,她不顾自身危险,先后19次历经艰难险阻重返南方,带领逃亡的奴隶们辗转于一个又一个的安全落脚点。
  逃跑的秘诀
  许多人称哈丽雅特为“伪装高手”。她有时穿成是年迈的妇女,有时将自己扮作男人。据说有一天她遇到了以前的某位主人,那人竟然没认出她来。
  哈丽雅特的聪明还表现在其他方面。她雇人去撕下那些描述逃奴特点的通缉告示。当时的逃跑公告都印在报纸上,但在周末的报纸上不会刊登,必须要等到周一早上才能见报。于是哈丽雅特就在周六晚上组织奴隶逃跑,以抢占先机。
   要是哈丽雅特觉得自己遇到的人像是前来追捕逃奴的人,她便掉头往南走,好让人看起来她并不是想逃跑一样。要是逃亡的奴隶想要反悔,她便会强迫他们继续朝着北方前进,朝着自由前行。她自豪地宣称她从未让一个“乘客”掉过队。
   奴隶主们十分愤怒,他们悬赏捉拿哈丽雅特,不管活捉还是干掉都行。赏金达四万美元,这在当时可是很大的一笔钱。有一天,哈丽雅特无意中听到一个男子在读通缉她的告示,告示上说哈丽雅特不识字。她就立刻掏出一本书来假装在读,而那个男子都没有再看她一眼就走了。
   哈丽雅特帮助自己的很多亲戚逃出了南方,她十个兄弟姐妹中有六个都是亏得有她帮助才得以逃走的。在一次艰险的出逃中,她还带着自己年迈的双亲一路北上直至加拿大。
  在哈丽雅特的带领下,三百多名奴隶逃往北方,重获自由。对她而言,没有什么事情比帮助他人获得自由更重要。著名的废奴主义者约翰·布朗称哈丽雅特·塔布曼为“这片土地上最勇敢的人之一”。人们称她为“同胞们的摩西”,因为她就像《圣经》中带领犹太人逃出埃及的摩西一样,带领她的同胞们走向自由。
   奴隶制的终结
  1861年4月12日,美国内战爆发。哈丽雅特在战争中是北方联邦军的一名护士,同时也是一名侦查员,负责侦察南方军队的军火库所在地。在此期间,她还继续往返于南北方之间,带领奴隶们逃往北方。
   内战结束后,哈丽雅特重新组建了家庭,定居纽约州奥本市,靠挨家挨户卖菜为生。虽然她自己很穷,但她还是将自己的房子变成一个收容所,收容那些已经获得自由而又十分贫穷的人。她为那些得以解放的奴隶争取物质上的帮助和受教育uedbet的权利,也为争取女性的投票权进行了努力。
   哈丽雅特·塔布曼于1913年3月10日离开了人世。她毕生都在为自由而战。人们会永远铭记这位真正的英雄——哈丽雅特·塔布曼。
  4. perilous [?per?l?s] adj. (充满)危险的
  5. conductor [k?n?d?kt?(r)] n. 乘务员。此处指“地下铁道”组织中帮助奴隶逃跑的人员,是该组织的暗语之一。
  6. underground railroad: “地下铁道”,给逃往美国北方寻求自由的奴隶们提供一些安身之地或藏身之所的组织。
  7. head start: 占先;有利的开端
  8. scout [ska?t] vi. 侦察
  9. warehouse [?we?ha?s] n. 仓库
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